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Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion
------------------------------

There are 2 types of atomic explosions that can be facilitated by U-235;
fission and fusion. Fission, simply put, is a nuclear reaction in which an
atomic nucleus splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable
mass, with the evolution of approximately 100 million to several hundred
million volts of energy. This energy is expelled explosively and violently in
the atomic bomb. A fusion reaction is invariably started with a fission
reaction, but unlike the fission reaction, the fusion (Hydrogen) bomb derives
its power from the fusing of nuclei of various hydrogen isotopes in the
formation of helium nuclei. Being that the bomb in this file is strictly
atomic, the other aspects of the Hydrogen Bomb will be set aside for now.
The massive power behind the reaction in an atomic bomb arises from the
forces that hold the atom together. These forces are akin to, but not quite
the same as, magnetism.
Atoms are comprised of three sub-atomic particles. Protons and neutrons
cluster together to form the nucleus (central mass) of the atom while the
electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets around a sun. It is these
particles that determine the stability of the atom.
Most natural elements have very stable atoms which are impossible to
split except by bombardment by particle accelerators. For all practical
purposes, the one true element whose atoms can be split comparatively easily
is the metal Uranium. Uranium's atoms are unusually large, henceforth, it is
hard for them to hold together firmly. This makes Uranium-235 an exceptional
candidate for nuclear fission.
Uranium is a heavy metal, heavier than gold, and not only does it have
the largest atoms of any natural element, the atoms that comprise Uranium have
far more neutrons than protons. This does not enhance their capacity to
split, but it does have an important bearing on their capacity to facilitate
an explosion.
There are two isotopes of Uranium. Natural Uranium consists mostly of
isotope U-238, which has 92 protons and 146 neutrons (92+146=238). Mixed with
this isotope, one will find a 0.6% accumulation of U-235, which has only 143
neutrons. This isotope, unlike U-238, has atoms that can be split, thus it is
termed "fissionable" and useful in making atomic bombs. Being that U-238 is
neutron-heavy, it reflects neutrons, rather than absorbing them like its
brother isotope, U-235. (U-238 serves no function in an atomic reaction, but
its properties provide an excellent shield for the U-235 in a constructed bomb
as a neutron reflector. This helps prevent an accidental chain reaction
between the larger U-235 mass and its `bullet' counterpart within the bomb.
Also note that while U-238 cannot facilitate a chain-reaction, it can be
neutron-saturated to produce Plutonium (Pu-239). Plutonium is fissionable and
can be used in place of Uranium-235 {albeit, with a different model of
detonator} in an atomic bomb. [See Sections 3 & 4 of this file.])
Both isotopes of Uranium are naturally radioactive. Their bulky atoms
disintegrate over a period of time. Given enough time, (over 100,000 years or
more) Uranium will eventually lose so many particles that it will turn into
the metal lead. However, this process can be accelerated. This process is
known as the chain reaction. Instead of disintegrating slowly, the atoms are
forcibly split by neutrons forcing their way into the nucleus. A U-235 atom
is so unstable that a blow from a single neutron is enough to split it and
henceforth bring on a chain reaction. This can happen even when a critical
mass is present. When this chain reaction occurs, the Uranium atom splits
into two smaller atoms of different elements, such as Barium and Krypton.
When a U-235 atom splits, it gives off energy in the form of heat and
Gamma radiation, which is the most powerful form of radioactivity and the most
lethal. When this reaction occurs, the split atom will also give off two or
three of its `spare' neutrons, which are not needed to make either Barium or
Krypton. These spare neutrons fly out with sufficient force to split other
atoms they come in contact with. [See chart below] In theory, it is
necessary to split only one U-235 atom, and the neutrons from this will split
other atoms, which will split more...so on and so forth. This progression
does not take place arithmetically, but geometrically. All of this will
happen within a millionth of a second.
The minimum amount to start a chain reaction as described above is known
as SuperCritical Mass. The actual mass needed to facilitate this chain
reaction depends upon the purity of the material, but for pure U-235, it is
110 pounds (50 kilograms), but no Uranium is never quite pure, so in reality
more will be needed.
Uranium is not the only material used for making atomic bombs. Another
material is the element Plutonium, in its isotope Pu-239. Plutonium is not
found naturally (except in minute traces) and is always made from Uranium.
The only way to produce Plutonium from Uranium is to process U-238 through a
nuclear reactor. After a period of time, the intense radioactivity causes the
metal to pick up extra particles, so that more and more of its atoms turn into
Plutonium.
Plutonium will not start a fast chain reaction by itself, but this
difficulty is overcome by having a neutron source, a highly radioactive
material that gives off neutrons faster than the Plutonium itself. In certain
types of bombs, a mixture of the elements Beryllium and Polonium is used to
bring about this reaction. Only a small piece is needed. The material is not
fissionable in and of itself, but merely acts as a catalyst to the greater
reaction.

============================================================================

- Diagram of a Chain Reaction -
-------------------------------

|
|
|
|
[1]------------------------------> o
. o o .
. o_0_o . <-----------------------[2]
. o 0 o .
. o o .
|
\|/
~
. o o. .o o .
[3]-----------------------> . o_0_o"o_0_o .
. o 0 o~o 0 o .
. o o.".o o .
|
/ | \
|/_ | _\|
~~ | ~~
|
o o | o o
[4]-----------------> o_0_o | o_0_o <---------------[5]
o~0~o | o~0~o
o o ) | ( o o
/ o \
/ [1] \
/ \
/ \
/ \
o [1] [1] o
. o o . . o o . . o o .
. o_0_o . . o_0_o . . o_0_o .
. o 0 o . <-[2]-> . o 0 o . <-[2]-> . o 0 o .
. o o . . o o . . o o .
/ | \
|/_ \|/ _\|
~~ ~ ~~
. o o. .o o . . o o. .o o . . o o. .o o .
. o_0_o"o_0_o . . o_0_o"o_0_o . . o_0_o"o_0_o .
. o 0 o~o 0 o . <--[3]--> . o 0 o~o 0 o . <--[3]--> . o 0 o~o 0 o .
. o o.".o o . . o o.".o o . . o o.".o o .
. | . . | . . | .
/ | \ / | \ / | \
: | : : | : : | :
: | : : | : : | :
\:/ | \:/ \:/ | \:/ \:/ | \:/
~ | ~ ~ | ~ ~ | ~
[4] o o | o o [5] [4] o o | o o [5] [4] o o | o o [5]
o_0_o | o_0_o o_0_o | o_0_o o_0_o | o_0_o
o~0~o | o~0~o o~0~o | o~0~o o~0~o | o~0~o
o o ) | ( o o o o ) | ( o o o o ) | ( o o
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ o \ / o \ / o \
/ [1] \ / [1] \ / [1] \
o o o o o o
[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]



============================================================================

- Diagram Outline -
---------------------

[1] - Incoming Neutron
[2] - Uranium-235
[3] - Uranium-236
[4] - Barium Atom
[5] - Krypton Atom


===========================================================================

-End of section 2-
-Diagrams & Documentation of the Atomic Bomb-
=== Cut ===
С yважением, MeteO
--- GoldED 3.00.Beta3+
* Origin: Мой адpес не дом и не yлица, мой адpес (2:5020/1376.43)
XC: SU.ISR&JEWS
--------------------------------
File courtesy of Outlaw Labs
--------------------------------

III. The Mechanism of The Bomb
-------------------------

Altimeter
---------
An ordinary aircraft altimeter uses a type of Aneroid Barometer which
measures the changes in air pressure at different heights. However, changes
in air pressure due to the weather can adversely affect the altimeter's
readings. It is far more favorable to use a radar (or radio) altimeter for
enhanced accuracy when the bomb reaches Ground Zero.
While Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave (FM CW) is more complicated,
the accuracy of it far surpasses any other type of altimeter. Like simple
pulse systems, signals are emitted from a radar aerial (the bomb), bounced off
the ground and received back at the bomb's altimeter. This pulse system
applies to the more advanced altimeter system, only the signal is continuous
and centered around a high frequency such as 4200 MHz. This signal is
arranged to steadily increase at 200 MHz per interval before dropping back to
its original frequency.
As the descent of the bomb begins, the altimeter transmitter will send
out a pulse starting at 4200 MHz. By the time that pulse has returned, the
altimeter transmitter will be emitting a higher frequency. The difference
depends on how long the pulse has taken to do the return journey. When these
two frequencies are mixed electronically, a new frequency (the difference
between the two) emerges. The value of this new frequency is measured by the
built-in microchips. This value is directly proportional to the distance
travelled by the original pulse, so it can be used to give the actual height.
In practice, a typical FM CW radar today would sweep 120 times per
second. Its range would be up to 10,000 feet (3000 m) over land and 20,000
feet (6000 m) over sea, since sound reflections from water surfaces are
clearer.
The accuracy of these altimeters is within 5 feet (1.5 m) for the higher
ranges. Being that the ideal airburst for the atomic bomb is usually set for
1,980 feet, this error factor is not of enormous concern.
The high cost of these radar-type altimeters has prevented their use in
commercial applications, but the decreasing cost of electronic components
should make them competitive with barometric types before too long.

Air Pressure Detonator
----------------------
The air pressure detonator can be a very complex mechanism, but for all
practical purposes, a simpler model can be used. At high altitudes, the air
is of lesser pressure. As the altitude drops, the air pressure increases. A
simple piece of very thin magnetized metal can be used as an air pressure
detonator. All that is needed is for the strip of metal to have a bubble of
extremely thin metal forged in the center and have it placed directly
underneath the electrical contact which will trigger the conventional
explosive detonation. Before setting the strip in place, push the bubble in
so that it will be inverted.
Once the air pressure has achieved the desired level, the magnetic bubble
will snap back into its original position and strike the contact, thus
completing the circuit and setting off the explosive(s).

Detonating Head
---------------
The detonating head (or heads, depending on whether a Uranium or
Plutonium bomb is being used as a model) that is seated in the conventional
explosive charge(s) is similar to the standard-issue blasting cap. It merely
serves as a catalyst to bring about a greater explosion. Calibration of this
device is essential. Too small of a detonating head will only cause a
colossal dud that will be doubly dangerous since someone's got to disarm and
re-fit the bomb with another detonating head. (an added measure of discomfort
comes from the knowledge that the conventional explosive may have detonated
with insufficient force to weld the radioactive metals. This will cause a
supercritical mass that could go off at any time.) The detonating head will
receive an electric charge from the either the air pressure detonator or the
radar altimeter's coordinating detonator, depending on what type of system is
used. The Du Pont company makes rather excellent blasting caps that can be
easily modified to suit the required specifications.

Conventional Explosive Charge(s)
--------------------------------
This explosive is used to introduce (and weld) the lesser amount of
Uranium to the greater amount within the bomb's housing. [The amount of
pressure needed to bring this about is unknown and possibly classified by the
United States Government for reasons of National Security]
Plastic explosives work best in this situation since they can be
manipulated to enable both a Uranium bomb and a Plutonium bomb to detonate.
One very good explosive is Urea Nitrate. The directions on how to make Urea
Nitrate are as follows:
- Ingredients -
---------------
[1] 1 cup concentrated solution of uric acid (C5 H4 N4 O3)
[2] 1/3 cup of nitric acid
[3] 4 heat-resistant glass containers
[4] 4 filters (coffee filters will do)

Filter the concentrated solution of uric acid through a filter to remove
impurities.
1 2 3 4